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Week 4 submission: Credibility

Week 4 submission:

Question 1)

With the internet now becoming more prominent in modern society, it is opening up the opportunity to access information faster and more frequently than ever before. Therefore the credibility of a website is becoming more important.

As I am currently studying at ECU, the internet has to be the most useful yet dangerous tool in regards to research. We are often a little short sighted when it comes to obtaining information, so blind sided by our eagerness to complete assignments as quickly as possible, that we don’t think to check where our sources are coming from. It is becoming a common mistake made by my self and other students to use un-creditable websites, that leave our university tutors baffled when trying to figure out if we have made sources up or have merely been sucked in to the black hole, which is the Internet.

It is important to check your sources before proceeding to use a website’s information in any assignments. The Authors should be of a scholarly background. ECU’s online journal catalogue is a great source of information because students have the 100% confidence that each author is of a scholarly nature. The date in which the work was published is also another thing to bear in mind, as out dated information may well be inferior, as new information may be available and more credible.

Question 2)

Whilst Wikipedia is a great site to have access to, the fact that it can be edited by anyone means that ordinary people can put whatever nonsense they want on Wikipedia regardless of the background or knowledge in the matter. This means that Wikipedia is not a creditable source, but doesn’t mean it is of no use when doing research.  You can use it as a launch pad for your research, something that gives you a broad understanding of your topic, yet allows you to open up other opportunities to research.

Whilst not currently allowed to be used as a creditable source at most Universities around the world, the truth of the matter is that most of the information on the Wikipedia website is true, and most of it would be used by students if it was allowed. In fact, in most cases when you type in a search into Google, a Wikipedia source will have the highest search rating.

Unfortunately one of the most common words seen in a Wikipedia article is “citation needed”, which tells us that the information is either biased or unsupported, or sometimes even both. On other occasions when you view a Wikipedia article the information is so outlandish it is plainly false.

However recently there has been movements for the owners of the website to remove the freedom of speech tool and make Wikipedia into a creditable website. There is a mounting pressure on Wikipedia to implement strict control and editing measures. However, doing so would remove the opportunity for freedom of speech and user editing options, and the website may lose the current amount of followers as a result, meaning that Wikipedia is likely to stay as it is for quite some time.

Question 3)

The findings of Fogg’s studies conducted in 1999 and 2002 (see page 154 of this week’s reading) indicated that people’s perception of Web credibility has changed. For example, people’s perception on non‐profit organisation websites has changed since 1999. This is because, nowadays, setting up a nonprofit website is easy, and therefore the image of non‐profit websites has lost its value. In dot points, in your own words, list anticipated issues that may affect the users’ perceived Web credibility in future (200 words).

This question is grammatically incorrect and as a result I do not understand.

Question 4)


Presumed credibility refers to the general assumptions we make about something’s credibility. For example, I believe that the Google website has credibility for the following reasons:

▪   – It is an international organisation used by millions every day.

▪   -Provides links to sometime millions of relevant articles and pages

▪   – It features an “about Google” section, meaning that it lists its contact information.

▪   Domain name contains ‘’


Surface credibility refers to what we find on inspection – how professional it appears. The website is one such example of surface credibility for the following reasons:

▪   Site looks professional

▪   Web design is definitely relevant to its content

▪   Appears to be trustworthy

▪    From an instantly recognisable source

▪   Articles are written by professionals

▪   Regularly updated (every 60 seconds with live scores).


If someone we know recommends something to us we are likely to believe that it is real and creditable. The Fox Sports News (FSN) website is an example of reputed credibility for the following reasons:

▪   I was referred to this site by a friend

▪   Many credible sites provide links to FSN

▪   Other people can be seen on the domain as “liking” the homepage. This means

that its been viewed by others as well as myself.


Credibility can be earned if the user has had a previous experience with a site. is one example of earned credibility for the following reasons:

▪   I have used the website before

▪   I know how to use the website and understand its basic functions

▪   I know what to expect from the site.

I am familiar with this website!



Fogg, B. J. (2003). Credibility and the World Wide Web. In Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do (pp. 122‐125). Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

Meir, S. (n.d.). Is Wikipedia a credible source for undergraduate economics students?Retrieved from


Week 3 submission: Performance Load

Week 3 submission

Question 1)

“Performance load is the degree of mental and physical activity required to achieve a goal” (Butler, Holden and Lidwell, 2003.) Performance load consists of two types of loads: cognitive load and kinematic load.

Cognitive load is basically the amount of mental activity needed to reach the end goal. How much problem solving is required and how much memory is needed during the processes to reach the final goal. To avoid heavily relying on the cognitive load to achieve the end goal, people can reduce visual noise, categorizing important information, memory aids and automating computation and memory intensive tasks.

Kinematic load is the degree of physical activity, better known as the number of steps or movements, used to obtain the required goal. General tactics that people can implement to reduce the physical load when completing the task is to minimize the range of motion and travel distances as well as repetitive tasks.

Question 2)

According to ‘the learning coach .com’ chunking is defined as: “Chunking refers to the strategy of breaking down information into bite-sized pieces so the brain can more easily digest new information” (Malamed, 2012.)

There are four steps to successfully ‘chunking’ information into smaller sections to easily condense information.

Step 1: Start at the highest level.
Use a chunking strategy while determining the content hierarchy of a course. Determine how modules, lessons and topics will be organized into a logical and progressive order.

Start with large chunks of conceptually related content and use these as your modules. There are numerous organizational strategies, such as simple to complex, cause and effect, sequential, etc. See How to Organize Content for more on this.

Step 2: Modules into lessons into topics.
Divide modules into smaller related chunks and these will become your lessons. Continue with this process until content is broken down to the topic level. As you become more familiar with the content, fine tune the internal structure.

Step 3: Chunk at the screen level.
When you have a solid module-lesson-topic structure, organize the content so each screen consists of one chunk of related information. Depending on how you design, this could be at the topic level, at the detailed learning objective level or at the concept level. As a guiding rule, avoid introducing multiple topics, learning objectives or concepts at one time.

Step 4: Do a working memory check.
Throughout the process, think in terms of working memory. Do you really need to include all the content you have in front of you? If not, get rid of extraneous content. Less is more.

(Malamed, 2012)


Carrying out these steps will ensure people correctly chunk information, resulting in the brain being able to hold only the important bits of information, as the brain can only hold a certain amount.

Question 3)

The Macquarie dictionary defines Psychology as follows: The scientific study of the human mind and its functions, esp. those affecting behavior in a given context, or, the mental characteristics or attitude of a person or group.

Of course the study of Psychology is necessary. Any study into further developing people knowledge of how the most sophisticated and important organ in the human body has to be a good thing. Further research into the human mind may result in cures for mental illness and may even one day prevent violent acts against other people.


Iphone’s now come with ‘Siri’. A program in which users can talk into their phone to ask ‘Siri’ to help them out with something. For example, I can ask Siri to send a text message to my mum and ask her, “what is for dinner” and Siri will perform the task. Siri has single handedly reduced the cognitive load of sending a text message as well as eliminating a sizeable amount of the Kinematic load needed to send a text message.



Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Performance Load. In Universal Principles of Design (pp. 148‐149). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Melamed, C. (2012) Chunking Information for Instructional Design. Retrieved from the Elearning coach website:


Principle of Consistency: Week 10

Question 1, week 10)

“Consistency enables people to efficiently transfer knowledge to new contexts, learn new things quickly and focus attention on the relevant aspects of a task” (Butler, Holden and Lidwell, 2003.)There are four types of Consistency, they include; aesthetic, functional, internal and external.


Aesthetic Consistency is basically how something consistently looks. For example, a television stations call sign (the little number in the bottom corner of the screen) it has been designed so that people know exactly what station they are watching, and can refer to it because it is always the same.


Functional consistency denotes what a specific action means. To apply functional consistency to everyday situations is pretty easy. Take a stop sign for example. The red sign that means ‘stop’ creates the action of traffic stopping in order to give way to traffic on coming. This part of the consistency principle is important as it enables people to gain a sense of how that thing works.


Internal Consistency is when elements in one system are consistent. For example, football team Guernsey’s. Every player in the team will wear the exact same colours so the fans can consistently identify which team is which. The team out fits must be also aesthetically and functionally consistent as it cultivates trust with people watching the sport.


External Consistency refers to elements with in the environment being the same. For example alarm sounds in a hospital need to be consistent so everyone working in the hospital knows exactly what is going on when they hear the alarm. This type of Consistency is hard maintain, however, by using functional consistency, the system can be simplified and will be easier to learn.


By combining all four types of consistency, systems can be designed in such a way that the people using the systems and the people observing them can relate and trust each system.


Question 2, week 10)

There are many different examples to explain the consistency principle, as it can be seen in almost every facet of our daily lives. Traffic Signs are a great one. Traffic signs are consistent all over Perth, aesthetically, functionally and externally. The signs need to look consistent so people do not get confused with the many different traffic rules we have. If only there were a ‘learn to merge’ sign for Perth drivers!



Another way we can apply consistency is through sport. Team uniforms, rules and regulations and the layout of the ground all need to be consistent. In Australian Rules Football, Aesthetic consistency can be applied to the uniforms of each team. They need to be consistent, as well as look good. If a team’s uniform looks ‘naff’ to its supporters then people will somewhat lose faith in their team. The rules and regulations can relate to functional consistency. The rules need to be the same so the competition can be consistent each year, eliminates any chance of cheating the system and also lets the spectators know what is going on.



Finally, Consistency can be applied to websites. A website can be applied to all four parts of the consistency principle. If the website is not aesthetically pleasing, people will quickly move on to another website that looks nicer. Websites need to be functionally consistent because if people find it to hard to figure out how to work the website, they will again quickly move on to another option. Once a website has gained aesthetic and functional consistency, Internal and External consistency will quickly flow on. People will immediately know how the system works as well as well as trust that the system will provide them with the specific needs and information that the system aims to provide.  






Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Aesthetic‐Usability Effect. In Universal Principles of Design (pp. 46). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Learning portfolio item 1


The article titled, Aesthetic-Usability Effect (AUE), talks about the very real situation in which consumers buy products based on the aesthetic appeal (the way they appeal to the eye) rather than the functionality of the product.

The AUE is kind of a funny thing, in regards to how many people don’t realise that they’re being bombarded by this affect every day. Think back to the old days of mobile phones, about 7 years ago, at how it was cool to get a really high score in snake two on your Nokia 3310. Now we have phones that look like mini televisions that can have a conversation with us! We never used to care about what phones looked like, just as long as we could text or call people.

It is unbelievable how far technology has developed over the last ten years, and the aesthetics of products have now become the most appealing part. I remember a few weeks ago I was shopping and found my self in the toothbrush section thinking, “I could use a new toothbrush.” 15 minutes later I was still there trying to decide which one to get. The colours and the styles of each toothbrush were amazing. Despite the fact that they all do the same job, of removing 99.9% of plaque and germs, I bought a $12 toothbrush because it had orange bristles. The Aesthetic-Usability Effect one. Gullible uni student Jake zero.

The AUE is becoming, if not already, has become the single most brilliant advertising tool. The article also outlines the perception that consumers feel, in which that they buy a product that is more beautiful it will be easier to use. For example, If you give someone a 150 thousand dollar Porsche, and asked them to drive you somewhere they had never been. They would jump at the opportunity to drive a beautiful Porsche, however, would probably spend the next first 45 minutes trying to work out how to use the SAT NAV.

Today’s society has been sucked in to the most brilliant advertising tool, which is the AUE. I feel that people need to go back to basics, and buy products for the services they provide, rather than how beautiful they are.


There are many examples out there that can be associated with the Aesthetic-Usability Effect, but I can only describe three. The first is a no brainer, Apple computers. The attention to detail that Apple has with its products is second to none. Keyboard’s that are illuminated, convenient yet pretty at the same time. The graphics on the screen are so vibrant and sharp that the user will be mesmerised for hours on end. The Apple Mac computers speak for them selves in regards to meeting the AUE principle. Apple is literally ‘leading people to the light’ with their products and it has resulted in Apple’s net worth to exceed $500 billion. To put that in perspective, if you took Poland and Costa Rica’s gross domestic product (basically how much money a country makes from its goods and services in a year) you still would not have as much as what Apple has.

The second example is kind of cliché, but I’m a bloke and I loves cars. The most beautiful car of all time according to Enzo Ferrari, who lets be honest kind of knows his stuff, is the Jaguar E-Type. The gorgeous curves and long sleek lines accompanied by that huge aggressive bonnet make it one of the most stunning cars ever made. This car relates to the AUE specifically because this beautiful car sounds as amazing as it looks, but the reality is it probably doesn’t drive as well as my mums reasonably priced Toyota Camry. But really who cares, if someone lent me this car for the weekend, I’m pretty sure I’m not going to turn it down.

Finally something a little bit more unorthodox to relate to the AUE is Toothbrushes. We use this product (hopefully) twice a day everyday for the entirety of our lives. The Oral B CrossAction Pro-Health sounds like an x-ray machine, but in fact it is just an ordinary toothbrush. This brush not only removes 99% of plaque in hard to reach areas and gives the user a 55% better clean along the gum line, but it looks fantastic. It comes in a variety of colours including Saphire, Topaz, Ruby and titanium. Not just blue red or green but these colours even sound sophisticated. Which is a text book example of the AUE. The brushes sleek curves and gel grips add to the look resulting in a stunning example of toothbrush design. Users will definitely be going out to buy this toothbrush because it looks fantastic, even though you can buy an environmentally friendly toothbrush made from bamboo that does the same job.


Oral-B (2012) CrossAction Pro-Health. Retrieved from

Yahoo! Autos (2012) The 10 most beautiful cars of all time. Retrieved from

CNBC (2012) How Big Is Apple? Retrieved from

Sara M. Conklin, Richard J. Koubek, James A. Thurman and Leah C. Newman (2006) Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting: The Effects of Aesthetics and Cognitive, Style on Perceived Usability. 50, 2153-2157. DOI: 10.1177/154193120605001808


So stoked Collingwood smashed the wet toast eagles on saturday night!

Very gutsy performance from the boys, considering the difficult week the lads had with the sad passing off J-Mac.


Hopefully we can go one step further all the way to the Gf!!


Browny and Blairy after the big win over the Eagles

Fire up boys!


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